Alcatel-Lucent(s alu) uncovered on Thursday that it has begun peppering Verizon Wireless(s vz)(s vod) with small cells in both indoor and open air areas. Rather than the “huge” cells transmitting from towers and housetops, these cells are intended to surgically embed limit into thickly populated ranges of Verizon’s 3G and 4G organize, where interest for voice and versatile information is most prominent and clog generally serious.
As I composed a couple of months back, 2014 was the commence year for introduction of small cells in the U.S., however Verizon doesn’t have an incredible driven rollout arrangements of AT&T(s t) and Sprint(s s). While AT&T has focused on conveying 40,000 minimal base stations in its system throughout the following two years (with exceptional consideration regarding Disney amusement parks), Verizon has had a tendency to make light of the innovation, asserting it won’t convey the huge limit picks up the business claims.
Rather Verizon is by all accounts concentrating on extending limit its current large scale cell arrange by heaping on new transfer speed in new frequencies. A year ago, Verizon started overhauling its LTE arrange in enormous thick urban areas, multiplying or tripling its 4G limit in real markets.
Still, Verizon’s system designing boss Nicola Palmer has said that the small cells have their utilizations, alongside other scope and limit boosting advancements like conveyed recieving wire frameworks, which are utilized to pillar signals into difficult to-achieve zones like metro stations and stadium grandstands. Be that as it may, I get the impression Verizon will utilize those advances sparingly.
While Alcatel-Lucent reported its little cell commitment today, Verizon’s other real system merchant Ericsson(s eric) won’t likely be a long ways behind. Verizon tapped both hardware producers to shrivel down cells in its system a year ago.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has drawn the attention of the research community in the past few years. This growing interest can be largely credited to new applications enabled by large-scale networks. Most deployed wireless sensor networks measure scalar data such as temperature, pressure, humidity, or the location of objects. On a general note, most of the applications have low bandwidth cell phone signal demands and are usually delay tolerant. While the traditional wireless sensor networks consist of low-bandwidth sensors with limited capabilities, camera sensor networks can provide visual verification, in-depth situational awareness, recognition, and other capabilities. In recent years, wireless sensor networks have inspired tremendous research interest in diverse application fields such as structural health monitoring, environmental monitoring, and military and security surveillance. A typical wireless sensor network consists of sensor nodes, each equipped with various kinds of sensors, deployed over a geographical region of interest. Most of the applications are centered towards harvesting information from the physical environment, performing a simple processing on the extracted data and transmitting it to remote locations.
A new direction in wireless sensor network application design centers on the idea of enabling the network to learn the behaviour of the trend in the environment rather than merely making measurements and reporting about a single event or information of interest. A Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) is defined as a network of wireless embedded devices that allow retrieving video or audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) mainly deals with scalar data such as temperature, humidity, and light which are very suitable for low rate and low power. The commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS camera has fostered researchers to push WSN a step further. The unique properties of multimedia data delivery pose fresh challenges for resource constrained sensor networks. Transmitting raw data is very costly while limited processing power prevents sophisticated multimedia processing at the sensor nodes. Wireless sensor networks offer an attractive choice for low cost solutions for transmitting data wireless to a database to be evaluated. Wireless networks of visual sensors have recently emerged as a new type of sensor-based intelligence system. The goal of the visual sensor network is to provide a user with visual information from an arbitrary viewpoint within the monitored field.
Research says that wireless networks in combination with image sensors open up a multitude of previously unthinkable sensing applications. In an on-going project, we are designing and implementing a sensor node with a camera which would be capable of acquiring still images, transfer the data onto a personal computer through wireless communication, and store the image on a personal computer.
MobileAccess is a global provider of reliable wireless coverage solutions for all indoor wireless environments. MobileAccess’ solutions platform helps in delivering wireless connectivity in enterprises of every size, and has become the industry standard in the healthcare, hospitality and higher education markets. MobileAccess’ legacy of innovation and proven architecture set the bar for indoor wireless peak performance, ensuring customers can meet current wireless demands as well as easily expand with future applications and services. Thousands of organizations worldwide rely on MobileAccess including: Clarian Health, the Comcast Center, M Resort Spa Casino, Ford Field, GAN Tower (Paris), Grand Lakes Orlando, the Dutch Parliament building (Netherlands), Hearst Corporation, Melbourne Australia Airport, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Royal Dutch Shell and the University of Phoenix Stadium. MobileAccess is headquartered in Vienna, Virginia.
Mobile Access, a global provider of in-building wireless solutions, announced that its portfolio of 4G wireless solutions are certified by wireless operators and are actively supporting LTE networks across the country. After completing the certification testing and documentation review in November 2010, MobileAccess was the first distributed antenna systems (DAS) provider to receive preferred status from the largest US carrier currently deploying a LTE network for its entire 4G portfolio, including the innovative MobileAccessVE solution.
Flexibility and performance are key variables in bringing a next-generation network online, and we are very pleased that our carrier partners, Verizon and AT&T, have recognized the capabilities of our solution in this regard. From arenas and hotels to office buildings and airports, LTE rollouts can be up and running in weeks versus months for a fraction of the cost of traditional DAS solutions.
The MobileAccessVE solution delivers LTE multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) capabilities over existing CAT-5 Ethernet cables, helping to avoid costly infrastructure projects that require two cables to achieve necessary performance levels as well as cutting installation timeframes from months to weeks. Not only does this re-use of existing cabling help wireless operators to meet their LTE rollout goals on time, but it also aids in retrofitting existing facilities, turning LTE implementations into simple upgrades for buildings already equipped with DAS deployments. With MobileAccess’ high performance LTE MIMO solutions the promise of 4G data rates has been delivered indoors to stadiums, hotels and airports alike.
In addition to MobileAccessVE, the MobileAccess1000 and MobileAccess2000 distributed antenna systems passed testing and are certified and deployed by wireless carriers in the US. Now, the hundreds of stadiums, airports, hospitals, hotels and other enterprise buildings that have deployed MobileAccess1000 and MobileAccess2000 systems can be upgraded by simply adding LTE modules to these installed systems.
LTE deployment is in full swing throughout the globe, and the urge for food for seamless mobility, digital services, and ability is ever-growing among billions of patrons. After embracing the opportunity to “go digital,” global corporations are now managing the transition toward full market penetration of LTE.
A 2013 report with the aid of GSMA Intelligence stated that global LTE connections will cross a thousand million mark in 2017. And that trend will proceed: international LTE connections will climb to a few billion by using 2020, in step with a July 2014 study through Juniper research.
As of August 2015, 66 mobile operators within the Asia Pacific neighborhood had LTE up and going for walks. Up to now five years, more than 170 operators have acquired new spectrum earmarked especially for 4G use, and forty two have bought science-impartial spectrum licenses.
Most markets in LTE at present benefited from the early undertaking of extra frequencies for LTE use. Developed markets are accomplishing a saturation point on the subject of smartphone adoption while constructing markets continue to develop their LTE infrastructure and search methods to decrease the out-of-pocket rate of buying a smartphone.
LTE had (and will proceed to have) an optimistic impact on utilization for operators internationally. With time, LTE’s extended speed and capacity will support earnings for these operators, as consumers use extra amazing apps and extra knowledge with the support of developing network capabilities.
Smartphones are key:
One most important and key facet to this progress is the developing reputation of smartphones. That will sound obvious, but smartphones are riding network expansion throughout all regions. For instance, 4G adoption is a key driver of smartphone revenue, and LTE devices symbolize 90% of smartphones sold at present, in line with one top executive from a North established CSP.
LTE smartphone customers download roughly twice the amount of knowledge that non-LTE smartphones consume – in some circumstances, thrice as much. Also, patrons are stimulated to eat significantly more information than earlier in view that of elevated capabilities and community potential, and they can do on account that of the expanded breadth of community offerings, which vendors can monetize.
Leading cell carriers in China, with hundreds and thousands of subscribers are strongly on related handset income, that continues to push adoption of 4G in China. As developed markets methods saturation, constructing markets will play an growing function trendy for 4G smartphones, inflicting suppliers to search approaches to fulfill the needs of rate-sensitive buyers. On that front, a number of non-average handset providers plan to provide cheap smartphones to rising markets.
Formulate your 4G technique:
Whether or not a CSP is in a developed or establishing a market, it must have a transparent technique that continues the transition to entire LTE market penetration, and helps power adoption of 4G. There are three areas where CSPs have differentiated themselves: network, customer experience, and pricing.
In their route to give a boost to community infrastructure and operations within the era of endured LTE and 4G progress, CSPs ought to improve their ROI, installation offerings more easily and effectively, and furnish an enhanced great of the provider to their customers throughout the board. By following these tactics, CSPs can increase the digital consumer expertise and – in time – grow sales through new products and offerings.
Even as us non-US denizens patiently watch for challenge Fi to hit our shores, Google has multiplied their cellular network’s worldwide information speeds for individuals who currently have the service.
Starting at present, Google claims assignment Fi subscribers have access to high velocity knowledge in 135+ destinations. This can be a outcome of the addition of Three to task Fi’s network, which Google says will permit the provider “to deliver speeds 10-20x faster than before.”
Project Fi has multiplied to more than a dozen extra countries with this announcement while consumers are nonetheless in a position to access data with no further costs – paying the same basic $10/GB rate they would at home.
The info we’ve access to when touring abroad mainly isn’t quick or low-priced enough to let us do the tasks that subject most. Which might be why most effective 20% of Americans decide to use their mobile data when journeying internationally, as a substitute deciding upon to jump between Wi-Fi hotspots or scramble for a local SIM card,” Google wrote in a weblog submit.
Three is Google’s first international accomplice, but the corporation secured its 0.33 on its home turf in US cell last month. Previous to the announcement, Google claimed that Fi users can get a mobile sign an excellent 99% of the time; with that sign being 4G LTE around 95% of the time.
External the U.S., venture Fi purchasers have been used to 256kbps knowledge speeds which make modern day announcement welcome for many who travel rather a lot. The brand new speeds open up a range of new potentialities we quite often take for granted reminiscent of video streaming, video chat, flip-via-turn instructional materials, faster entry to electronic mail attachments, and the capability to add media on-the-transfer.
If the announcements have tempted you to make the change to project Fi, Google is sweetening the deal offering $one hundred fifty off the Nexus 6P for the subsequent week whilst you buy and prompt with their cellular community.
DAS technology introduces carrier signals inside a building and re-transmits with the help of radios and antennas. On the same system, it supports multiple carrier networks. They are the ultimate solution for large deployments.
By developing wireless signal through a network of base station towers (BST), a carrier network work. When the signals are transmitted within the tower’s geographical area two-way communication happens where a phone can send the signals back. The satellites work for GPS, similarly BSTs creates a coverage footprint. Once you get to the outer edge, the overage weakens. As they move away from footprints the coverage gets dissipated.
There are two types of DAS: Passive DAS and Active DAS. Passive DAS captures the signal with the help of an antenna from outside the building, strengthens it with an amplifier, and then they are transmitted. They use copper coax and it is the best solution for smaller properties. On the other hand, Active DAS use carrier-provided BST to produce a cellular signal directly. The signal source is connected to the DAS head-end where the signal is sent to radio units via fiber optic cable. The remote unit sends the signal to antennas over coax. It’s great for buildings with varied sizes.
Traditionally, Active DAS are used in large venues such as shopping malls, casinos, and stadiums. It is broadly used over 500,000 square feet. Even though it has been initiated for a very simple reason of holding back the customers it is emerging as an eminent technology.
Karl Griffith, an author who retired from Gray bar after 39 years of service, wrote an interesting article on Cable Installation & Maintenance entitled as, “Improving Wireless Coverage in Smaller Buildings.” The main subject of the article is about the financial restrictions and allegations that prevent the installation of distributed antenna systems (DAS) into their buildings. Cell phone service providers open up funding large building with Active DAS because of the increase in a number of users. A minimum of 750,000 square feet and above is needed for the service providers to offer the fund.
The Definition of a Small Building:
According to the U.S. Energy Administration’s 2012 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey, 88% of commercial buildings are 25,000 square feet or less. The need for clear and consistent cellular and data are immense and continue to grow, but most commercial buildings fall into the “small” category. The DAS are needed for smaller buildings with these circumstances.
• The materials such as low-emissivity glass, concrete, and the metal block cellular signals.
• For the buildings where the cellular signal isn’t consistently strong enough within the coverage area.
• An inadequate signal reception is noted in some buildings within large campuses.
Presenting the feasible Alternative to DAS:
The best-suited alternative is passive DAS also known as “cellular signal boosters.” They are approved by FCC to accommodate the need of most companies. The aforementioned article suggests SureCall as the brand signal boosters. A cell phone signal booster consists of an outdoor antenna, one or more indoor antenna and a cable to connect. The outside antenna transmits the signal from the cell towers and passes them to the signal booster. The signal booster, in turn, amplifies and send the signal to the inside antenna. The inside antenna distributes the signal to all cellular devices.
By agreeing to all FCC rules and guidelines, all cellular providers approved the usage of SureCall’s line of cellular signal boosters, but it must be registered with the individual wireless providers. These boosters automatically attenuate in order to eliminate the possibility of interference with cell towers as well as to detect and correct oscillation occurrences.
Finally, SureCall is suitable for all building sizes (up to 250,000 square feet) and routing configurations. For others, there are models that boost cellular signals as well as HDTV signals along with a Wi-Fi extender. For more information about SureCall and our family of an award-winning booster, visit www.surecall.com.
Another of the enduring challenges in matching up a DAS with a mobile base station has been the need to use RF as the method of interface, which adds complexity and cost to the deployment. But to date, DAS equipment has not been able to use the Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI), which has been defined for base stations. Now, DAS equipment that does use CPRI is emerging, solving several key problems.
CPRI defines the publicly available specification for the key internal interface of radio basestations between the radio equipment control (REC or basestation) and the radio equipment (RE, or radio head). The companies cooperating to define the CPRI specification now include Ericsson, Huawei, NEC, Nokia Siemens Networks, and Alcatel-Lucent. The CPRI specification has gone through several revisions, and today it is at version 5.0.
The idea behind CPRI was to create an open standard for interfacing basestations with radio heads. But in reality, CPRI is neither common nor public, as it is not truly an open standard. Instead, similar to what happened with the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) for public branch exchanges (PBXs), each manufacturer developed its own flavor of CPRI that works only when interfacing its own basestations with its own radio heads.
The DAS head-end interfaces with base stations through the RF signal. This has been true since the inception of DAS more than 20 years ago. However, there is a significant power mismatch between base stations and DAS head-ends that must be accommodated for this interface to work. A typical base station puts out about 40 W, and a DAS head-end takes in roughly 0.25 W. Feeding 40 W into a DAS will destroy the head-end. As a result, the base station’s power must be severely reduced before it can interface with the DAS.
There are several challenges with reducing base station power output:
• Complexity: Base station power is reduced with racks of passive equipment called attenuators. All of this external “plumbing” between the base station and the DAS adds to the size, complexity, and cost of the deployment.
• Space: Racks of attenuators take up floor space, making a DAS deployment much larger than it needs to be. In many cases, there may not be enough floor space at the intended facility to accommodate the entire deployment, so a separate, off-site facility must be built. This added expense can be a deal-killer for many mobile operators.
• Heat: RF attenuators generate a lot of heat, making it necessary to spend more on air conditioning in DAS deployment areas.
• Cost: The need for attenuators and the need to invest manpower resources in designing and deploying all this RF plumbing adds capital and operating expenditures to the overall deployment, worsening the DAS business case for mobile operators.
• Inefficiency: Mobile operators invest in large, hot, power-hungry amplifiers for their base stations, only to have their power substantially reduced in the actual deployment. Amplifiers are one of the biggest cost drivers in a base station.
In 1999 a new technology called Airport was introduced by Apple Computers. The technology enabled a mobile user to establish and maintain a connection to a network without being physically linked to it by some sort of cable. This technology was then adopted and developed by the rest of the IT industry, then changed to the name we are all familiar today, Wi-Fi stands for wireless fidelity’. The use of wireless technology is quickly becoming the most popular way to connect to a network. Wi-Fi is one of the many available technologies that offer us the convenience of mobile computing. The thought of working anywhere and sending data to and from a device without physical connection is becoming increasingly attractive for many consumers and businesses. The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any “wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) 802.11 standards.” Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation.
Benefits of using WiFi
WiFi has a lot of advantages. Wireless networks are easy to set up and inexpensive. They’re also unobtrusive — unless you’re on the lookout for a place to use your laptop, you may not even notice when you’re in a hotspot. A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here’s what happens:
1. A computer’s wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna.
2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer’s wireless adapter. The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s. But WiFi radios have a few notable differences from other radios: They transmit at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. This frequency is considerably higher than the frequencies used for cell phones, walkie-talkies and televisions. The higher frequency allows the signal to carry more data.
They use 802.11 networking standards, which come in several flavors:
∙ 802.11a transmits at 5 GHz and can move up to 54 megabits of data per second. It also uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), a more efficient coding technique that splits that radio signal into several sub-signals before they reach a receiver. This greatly reduces interference.
∙ 802.11b is the slowest and least expensive standard. For a while, its cost made it popular, but now it’s becoming less common as faster standards become less expensive. 802.11b transmits in the 2.4 GHz frequency band of the radio spectrum. It can handle up to 11 megabits of data per second, and it uses complementary code keying (CCK) modulation to improve speeds.
∙ 802.11g transmits at 2.4 GHz like 802.11b, but it’s a lot faster — it can handle up to 54 megabits of data per second. 802.11g is faster because it uses the same OFDM coding as 802.11a.
We all check how many bars we have on our smartphones and assume it’s an accurate guide to how strong our
signal is. But what do those bars really represent?
There’s no standard. They do indicate signal strength, but it’s up to the handset manufacturer to come up with whatever algorithm they want. They certainly want to do something that is appropriate for the consumer, it needs to be meaningful information, but the details are up to them.
Nextivity makes processors and products that boost cell phone receptivity Its products have been approved by the FCC in the U.S. and by over 180 operators globally. The company also supplies the boosters that T-Mobile gives away to customers in the U.S. to improve the quality of their service. Consequently, Steve does a lot of signal testing.
How quickly do bars change?
Phones are complex and frankly, some phones may not update the bars on the screen very often. “We’ve seen in excess of 15 minutes without an update on the number of bars. What you’re seeing, versus what is reality, can be two very different things, and that can make it difficult sometimes to use a handset as a measuring tool.” That means, if you’ve ever walked around with your phone held in the air like a divining rod, staring at those bars, willing them to jump, you may be wasting your time. It depends on what kind of phone you have. An iPhone might show you two or three bars, because of lower signal-to- noise ratio, because of issues on the network, whereas an Android right next to it shows five bars. If one walks away from the booster, he/she would see the signal level drop on the Android, so the number of bars gradually decreases, whereas in that specific case of heavy loading, an iPhone might show less bars when one is right next to the booster, but as the person walks away it will remain relatively constant, because it’s heavily favoring this network loading issue.
How can you make emergency calls with no bars?
When you make an emergency call in the U.S., your phone uses any available channel from any operator, one could even be low on battery, where your phone wouldn’t normally let you make a phone call, but it will let you make an emergency call at all costs. It’s actually a legal requirement in the U.S. and many other countries, but it doesn’t relate to the bar system.
What can you do to boost your signal?
Booster technology has been restricted recently after the FCC brought in new regulations. The agency
has clamped down on some older amplifying technology because it was causing problems for the operators,
who pay a lot billions to license the spectrum from the government.
Nextivity’s boosters start at around the same price as a smartphone. But if you’re with T-Mobile and having
problems, call them and ask about Cel-Fi Signal Boosters.
Now that we know what the bars are really showing, and how to measure the signal strength for ourselves, we’re
off to check out that field test mode.
Not All Bars Are Created Equal Look down at your cell phone. How many bars of service do you have? Although the number of bars on your phone is generally a good way to see signal strength, it’s also wildly different from one carrier to the next. What might be 3 bars on T-Mobile is only 1 bar on AT&T despite receiving the exact same signal and having the exact same data speed. That’s because there’s no standard on how companies can represent signal bars. A much more accurate and technical way is to look at decibel (db) gain. Cell phone signal strength is measured in decibels. Usually, -50 dB represents great signal (full bars) and -110 dB is virtually no signal (dead zone). This is true across all carriers and all phones. When people are encountering dropped calls, lost connections, and very slow internet, they are usually near the -110 dB zone. A cell phone signal booster helps boost the dB levels closer to the -50 dB zone for better signal and connection on 3G and 4G LTE. Why is it important to know How to Read dB Gain When selecting a cell phone signal booster, it’s important to look at the dB gain rating of the amplifier. dB gain is a unit of measurement that defines the power of amplification. So a +10 dB gain is stronger than a +7 dB gain. However, dB gain is measured exponentially meaning there’s a big difference between a +7 and +10 db gain. For every +3 dB gain translates to doubling the signal strength. For every +10 dB is 10 times the signal strength. +20 dB gain? That’s a 100x more powerful. To compare, top selling car signal booster is the weBoost 470108 Drive 4G-M. It’s a powerful unit at +50 dB gain. Now, our top selling home amplifier is the weBoost 471104 Connect 4G-X. It’s a very powerful performer at +70 dB gain. Now we all know there’s a difference between a +50 and +70 dB gain, but the difference in power is much bigger than what the average person thinks. Again, +3 dB gain is 2x the power of signal strength. +10 dB gain is 10x the power. +20 dB gain is 100x the power. So the weBoost 471104 Connect 4G-X is 100 times more power than the weBoost 470108 Drive 4G-M! Of course, it is a building signal booster, so they need to be more powerful to cover the entire home or building. But there are other factors to consider like distance from tower and outside and building material interference, so the signal strength isn’t an exact guarantee, just a really, really good estimate of what you could receive. So the next time you’re comparing cell phone signal boosters, look for the dB gain. Because the difference between a +65 and +70 dB isn’t small, it’s more 3x the power and signal amplification. Below is a quick reference chart to show the dB gain and amount of power amplified. Decibel Gain Power Increase 3 dB 2 times the power 6 dB 4 times the power 10 dB 10 times the power 12 dB 16 times the power 20 dB 100 times the power